Around 9 Maroon, Droster & Orlam societies emerged from the late 18th century and consolidate within two decades on either side of the Gariep River which stretched from the West Coast to Lesotho and the Eastern Cape. On the Eastern Cape Wild Coast, shipwrecked individuals from Europe and Asia were absorbed into the local Xhosa communities.

Maroons, Orlam & Drosters
- 9 Roots of Origin -

Witbooi ǀKowesan

Witbooi dynasty of refugees from Khoe/Dutch Wars

Orlam Afrikaners

Runaway enslaved & Khoe rebels originating in Tulbagh in the Cape

Orlam Springboks

Jan Bloem’s mix of runaway enslaved, rebel Europeans, Nama & other Khoe drifters


Khoe refugees, runaway enslaved, rebel Europeans originally called Bergenaar Basters – The split into three formations – East Griqua, West Griqua, & The Barends Griqua


The regrouped and revived refugee Gora Khoe from the Cape & old small !Gariep Khoe

Danster Xhosa

Nzwane (Danster) Xhosa who took on the Orlam life along the Kai !Gariep

Hill Damara

The Damara or Damasqua Khoe originate on the East Cape Coast but were forced to the Northern Cape over time and then forcibly removed to Namibia

De Buys Clan

The descendant of the Dutch rebel Coenrad de Buys who chose to assimilate with a number of African societies

Wild Coast Maroons

Shipwreck Europeans and Asians along the Wild Coast in the Eastern Cape and who had no choice but to assimilate into local African societies e.g. abeLungu, amaMolo

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